The primary goal of Swachh Survekshan Survey is to encourage large scale citizen participation and create awareness amongst all sections of society about the importance of working together towards making towns and cities a better place to live in. These surveys also intend to foster a spirit of healthy competition among towns and cities to improve their service delivery to citizens, and thus steadily moving towards creating cleaner cities. As a prelude to encouraging cities to improve urban sanitation, Swachh Bharat Mission (Urban) of the Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs (Mo HUA) had conducted ‘Swachh Survekshan-2016’ for the rating of 73 Urban Local Bodies (ULBs) in January 2016.
Comparing Swachh Survekshan 2020 and Swachh Survekshan 2019
The coverage of 2020 survey included 4242 cities (including 62 cantonment boards) compared to 2019 survey of 4237 cities (including cantonment boards). Swachh Survekshan 2020 and 2019, both were 100% digitalized, with complete online submission of all documents by ULB s through a dedicated online portal for the same. The focus of Swachh Survekshan 2020, is institutionalizing Swachhata and Urban Local Bodies were guided to develop end to end solution for sanitation and waste management. Whereas the Swachh Survekshan 2019 was designed to assess the sustainable practices.
Highlights of Swachh Survekshan
|Prelude to the 2019 survey with focus on institutionalizing swachata||Worlds largest cleanliness survey|
|Increase capacity of utilising wet waste processing facilities.||The focus of the survey was on sustainability|
|Treatment of water and reusing it and curtailing solid based air pollution||Two new certification initiatives Open defecation free (ODF)localities and Garbage free citites(GFC)|
|Uplift social condition of informal waste pickers||The process of certification through 3rd parties was started with 2019 survey|
|Assessing Ganga Towns seperately to accelerate action||First completely digitalised and paperless survey|
|Technology driven monitoring||Massive participation by citizens|
|Reduce, Reuse and recycle is the mantra.|
Assessment and Scoring Protocol
For ‘Swachh Survekshan-2020 ’assessments, Mo HUA had revised the weightage for the overall assessment of the components of Swachh Bharat Mission. As compared to 2019, the total marks were increased from 5,000 to 6,000.The scoring for each ULB for ranking was segregated into four main components with 1500 marks for each. These components were further divided into sub components.
The 4 components of weightage for both Survekshans are
- Service level progress
Urban Local bodies are required to update on the progress attained in the stipulated time, the ULBs report their service level progress every quarter, Q1 (April-June),Q2(July-September) , Q3(October-December) on the MIS portal of Mo HUA. In the end of Q3, ULBs were required to upload evidence based documents to claim marks for the work done in each quarter. These documents were uploaded on the dedicated Swachh Survekshan portal In 2019 there was no subdivision under Service level progress. However in 2020 It was evaluated in 2 phases namely SS League 2020 and Average rankings, though the process was not much different from 2019 SLP.
Swachh Survekshan League 2020 (SS League 2020) was introduced with an objective of sustaining the on-ground performances of cities along with continuous monitoring of service level progress when it comes to cleanliness.
Comparison of Swachh Survekshan under Service Level Progress
|There were total of 40 indicators associated with Service Level Progress (SLP), which were further divided into six thematic areas.||There are a total of 33 indicators associated with Service Level Progress, broken up into seven thematic areas.|
|Documents uploaded by the ULBs pertaining to their claims of work progress against each of thematic areas were assessed by assessor of Ipsos consisting of 120 assessor’s and 15 research managers who verified each documents and MIS data files received from Mo HUA for initial scoring under SLP.For SS 2020 final ranking, the indicators under ‘service level progress’ were evaluated based on progress for third quarter ‘October-December and average rankings were awarded.||In 2019 Karvy assessors consisting of a team of 90 scorers and 16 research managers verified each and every document and MIS data files received from the Ministry for initial scoring under SLP. Unlike 2020 the assessors conducted independent verification of the claims of physical progress made by ULB through on-ground verification on a sample basis, and part-marks were deducted from SLP scores obtained on the basis of documentation review if on-ground verification revealed deviation from the claim. The extent of negative marking was simply a function of the degree of deviation.|
Certifications were based on two aspects Star Rating of Garbage Free Cities and Open Defecation Free Protocols. The certification process in 2020 was similar to 2019, the marks allocated in 2019 was 1250 against 1500 of SS 2020, however weightage remained at 25% for certification component in both the years
- Star Rating of Garbage Free Cities
This is a time bound certification process (with validity of one year) which involves assessment of various types of locations and facilities across every ward of the city. It is based on SMART Framework-Single metric, Measurable, Achievable, Rigorous verification mechanisms and Targeted towards outcomes. It has been devised in a holistic manner including components at the ward level as well as at the city level. The ward level locations include residential area, commercial and institutional areas, parks and gardens and Bulk Garbage Generators (BGGs). The city level infrastructure covered railway stations, airports, transport hubs, industrial areas, water bodies and storm drains, all dumpsites, processing plants and scientific landfills, and tourist areas including places of religious worship. ULBs registering themselves for certification were assessed on the basis of third party certification for achieving 1,3 ,5,or 7 Star rating. A maximum of 1000 marks out of 1500 were granted under GFC certification.
II) Open Defecation Free Protocols.
Cities and towns that have already achieved Open Defecation Free(ODF) status, as per the protocol prescribed by Mo HUA, has to work towards ensuring sustainability of ODF status by properly maintaining toilet facilities and safe collection, conveyance, treatment & disposal of all faecal sludge & sewage, in order to achieve safe sustainable sanitation for all, without a single person defecating and urinating in open, with all community & public toilets functional and well maintained, and faecal sludge & sewage is safely managed and treated. A third-party assessment carried out for the cities who requested certifications under ODF protocol are given a maximum of 500 marks.
- Direct Observation
The ULBs had to notionally divide their city into North, East, West and South Zones and indicate the zone against each ward. This information was supplied in the city profile which they submitted prior to the survey. This information was used by the sampling team to ensure that all samples drawn had a geographical representation.
Comparison of Swachh Survekshan under direct observation:
|The collection of data from direct observation was based on physical validation carried out at various locations by the field assessors of Ipsos as per SS-2020 protocol.||The collection of data from direct observation was based on physical validation carried out at various locations by the field assessors of Karvy as per SS-2019 protocol.|
|This segment comprised of 9 indicators with a total of 1500 marks.||This segment comprised of 8 indictors with a total of 1250 marks.|
- Citizen Feedback
Feedback from citizens were collected from 2 major segments direct citizen feedback and app based indicators. The process was similar in both the years.
Comparison of Swachh Survekshan under Citizen feedback.
|Feedback component is allocated 1500 marks, of which 1100 marks were allotted direct citizen feedback and 400 to app based indicators||Feedback component is allocated 1250 marks, of which 850 marks were allotted to direct citizen feedback and 400 to app based indicators|
|Direct citizen feedback is collected from citizens through 6 avenues: Face to face survey, Ipsos call centre outbound calls,1969 helpline number, Web portal of SS 2020 using OTP, Garbage free cities and Open defecation free polls||Direct citizen feedback is collected from citizens through 4 avenues: Face to face survey, Karvy call centre outbound calls,1969 helpline number, Web portal of SS 2019 using OTP.|
|App based indicators included Swachhata App and Vote for your city App||App based indicators included Swachhata App and Vote for your city App|
The cities/town that have a population of more than 1 lakh, or are smaller state capitals and UTs, are eligible for the national level awards. Cities that are smaller (population of less than 1 lakh) are being considered for zonal awards. Apart from these awards there are Best Clean City (best overall marks in national level), best fast mover (cities which moved up in ranks from previous years), Best big city in innovation and best practices, Best big city in citizens feedback, Best sustainable Big City and Best Ganga Town awards. All these awards were granted during both 2019 and 2020 survekshans
|There were a total of 130 award categories given out under SS 2020 under national, state, zonal and Cantonment level.||There were a total of 137 award categories under SS 2019, under national, state, zonal, and cantonment level.|
Awards for Swachh Survekshan 2020
Awards for Swachh Survekshan 2019