Solid waste management is a worldwide phenomenon. It is a big challenge all over the world for human beings. In India, every year 30.3 million tons of municipal solid waste is generated. This equates to about 350 gm of waste per person on average. The problem of municipal solid waste management (MSWM) is also prevailing in the urban environment of Mysore. Therefore let’s find out the problems and prospects of Municipal solid waste in Mysore city.
Mysore is the second-largest city in Karnataka after Bangalore. Mysore is spreading over an area of about 128 sq. km with the growing population (0.65 million in 1991 to 0.76 million in 2001) at a faster rate due to influx of many service industry activities, the generation of municipal waste both garbage and sewage has been on the rise. Anthropogenic activities in society generate large quantities of wastes posing a problem for their disposal. Improper disposal leads to the spreading of diseases and unhygienic condition besides spoiling the aesthetics. The city has several major and small industries present in Nanjangud 20 Km away from the Mysore city together with many educational and commercial establishments.
New initiatives from MCC:
The City Corporation has begun distributing bins to the households to segregate dry waste (plastics, paper, glass, metals, tetra packs, aluminium foils, etc) and wet waste (vegetables, fruits, flowers, leaves, wood, kitchen waste, etc) at homes. The green bins are assigned for wet waste and the red bins for the dry waste. The MCC plans to collect the plastic wastes separately once in a week from every household which would reduce their burden of segregation.
The methodology employed by the Mysore City Corporation are:
The system of the door-to-door collection was introduced in collaboration with Mysore City Corporation and a Nongovernmental organization.
Collection of waste:
Two plastic bins per house are given for separation of wet and dry waste at
the initial stage. About 75 % of waste is being segregated at the initial stage.
Transportation of waste:
Transportation of bio degradable and non-bio degradable waste is done in single vehicles but with different compartments for each type of waste. Each vehicle is of the average capacity of 400 kg. with 60% filling ratio. Three vehicles are available for transportation of waste. Daily 3 rounds of each vehicle are required to cover all area and collect all waste. The collected waste is transported to the segregation plant. And bio degradable waste is directly supplied to composting bins.
Segregation of waste:
About 75% of segregation is done at the initial stage
the remaining waste is required to segregate at segregation plant.
Here segregation is done in two stages. In the first stage
segregation of plastic, glass, soft plastic and bio degradable
waste are done. In the second stage, segregation is done in sub parts
of each material for marketing i.e. plastic with different colors
and thickness. Segregation is done on daily basis and starts
with the arrival of the vehicle on the grave yard.
From segregation process dry waste is stored in bind and
packed for monthly storage whereas biodegradable waste is
sent to composting bins.
Segregated bio degradable waste is directly dumped in
composting bins. The bin is of size 10’ x 10’ x 6’. Generally
two months are required to fill one composting bin
completely. After two months compost is selling to the
farmers as fertilizer. The average price of one bin compost is
around 2500 rupees.
Proposed action plan of SWM:
- Proposed to set up 2 new compost plant of 150 & 200tpd capacity
- Action is being taken up to setup 6 Biogas plant of capacity 1tpd each in ZWM Plants under SFC grants.
- Action is being taken to procure Shredders of capacity 10tpd under SFC grants to increase the capacity of ZWM units.
Features of the ZWM model:
- Decentralized: Reduce load on centralized compost plant located at the outskirt of the Mysuru city.
- Cost-effective: Saves money for the city by reducing waste transport costs.
- Energy-efficient and environmentally sound: will avoid mixing of segregated waste at secondary collection and transportation level and reduces waste sent to landfills.
- Highresourcerecovery: Enhances the recycling of dry and wet wastes.
- Labour friendly: Makes use of available workers and improves their earnings and quality of workday.
- Sustainable enterprise: Cost and environmental benefits and availability of the workforce make decentralized system administratively feasible.
Benefits of ZWM:
Decentralized Collection of Wastes.
•Recovery of resources at the source level and ensuring effective management of solid waste.
•Provide employment opportunities to people by reducing the use of machinery in operating waste treatment.
•Encouraging community participation.
•Requirement of secondary storage containers reduced.
•All the collected waste was transported to a single processing plant (CompostPlant) @sewage farm. With this strategy, the transportation of waste is decentralised and savings on time of transportation & on the cost of transportation. Life of Sanitary landfill is enhanced.
•High positive environmental impact due to the fact that the restless emission and less use of fuel since this is a decentralized waste management
This system promotes local community to participate in solid waste management. After segregation quantity of waste is reduced as a large amount of waste is used as compost and used for recycling of waste. Reuse of non-biodegradable waste and minimization in the quantity of waste generation makes this system environmentally friendly. 95% of waste is being recycled in this system. The civic authority is trying hard to maintain its cleanliness but lacks proper government support and infrastructure. It was further observed that, despite weighing the waste every day at the weighbridge at the dumpsite, the corporation fails to quantify the waste generated. The quantification is presently based on the estimation of per capita waste generated per day considering an average for the households, commercial establishments, hotels, restaurants, marriage and community halls. The City Corporationis not segregating the e-waste from the MSW and is being disposed of without proper care. Despite the use of GPS, the authority is unable to provide an optimum route for the transportation of the MSW. The use of GIS techniques can help improve the fleet management and select the optimum routes for the transportation of waste